90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The turret is reversed in this front 3/4 view, and the 90mm gun is secured in its travel lock. This early-production tank is seen with a single-baffle muzzle brake, and it lacks the stereoscopic rangefinder. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

Fixtures on the hull front are labeled. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the First Division Museum.

The location of the return rollers can be better seen with the dust shields absent. This tank is fitted with the later cylindrical blast deflector, and is missing its rangefinder and rear compensating idler wheel. The port in the gun shield for the coaxial machine gun has been plated over.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the First Division Museum.

Contours of the turret and gun shield can be seen in this image, along with the absence of the ventilator that was present between the drivers on the M26 and M46. The gunner did not have a sighting telescope; the stereoscopic rangefinder was his primary sight and his periscope was his secondary sight.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The long turret bustle, or "bulge," can be seen here, which was elongated further with the addition of a stowage box at the end. This early-production tank is not fitted with the rangefinder, and the blanked off apertures for the rangefinder can be seen at the top of the turret near the front. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The vehicle's opposite side is shown here. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

Details of the top of the vehicle are seen in this image. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The rear deck is isolated here. A. Front grille door. B. Front grille door support. C. Center battery box cover. D. Exhaust pipe housing cover. E. Right grille door. F. Rear crossbeam. G. Right rear grille door. H. Rear grille door support. J. Left rear grille door. K. Intermediate grille door. L. Lifting loop. M. Intermediate grille door support. N. Left grille door. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

Details of the rear of the vehicle are seen in this image. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the First Division Museum.

The components and access doors of the rear can be better seen on this real machine. This tank was fitted with the rubber T84E1 tracks, which have worn away.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

On the hull rear above the left brake adjustment access door and the center access door was mounted the housing for the auxiliary interphone equipment AN/VIA-1. This allowed dismounts to communicate with the tank crew. On the lower left corner of the housing, partially hidden by the access door handle, is a light that the loader could flash to signal external personnel. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

Openings in the hull bottom are labeled here. A. Side access door. B. Center access door. C. Brake linkage access hole cover. D. Transmission drain access hole cover. E. Oil cooler service hole cover. F. Engine mounting bolt hole. G. Main engine drain access hole cover. H. Drain valve. J. Fuel tank drain access hole cover. K. Hull drain hole cover. L. Escape hatch door. M. Main engine oil filter access hole cover. N. Main generator access hole cover. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the First Division Museum.

The drivers were provided with escape hatches in the hull floor, the opening for one of which is seen here.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The turret basket can easily be seen with the turret dismounted from the hull. The large bulge was used to counterbalance the weight of the 90mm gun. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the First Division Museum.

Substantial machining was performed on the sides and rear corners of this turret. Tool stowage was provided on the fender in the foreground.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the First Division Museum.

Attachment of the turret stowage box is highlighted here. An antenna mount and the inlet for the ventilating blower can be seen on the roof of the turret bulge.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the First Division Museum.

The rounded nature of the top of the turret bulge can be gleaned from this image. The inlet for the ventilator blower is in the foreground, and next to it is an antenna mount. A second antenna mount can be seen on the left side of the turret.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the First Division Museum.

A closer look at the rear of the cupola shows where vision blocks would be visible if not covered by diamond plate. The loader's hatch opened to the front, and assisting springs can be seen connecting it to the roof.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the First Division Museum.

Looking at the turret roof, there is a large removable plate above the rangefinder and gunner's periscope. The loader's fixed periscope can be seen on the right of the image, and the commander's later-style cupola is behind the machine gun pintle stand, which was heightened and relocated from the early tank in the technical manual images above.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the First Division Museum.

The position of the gunner's periscope in front of the commander's cupola is seen here. On earlier tanks, the .50cal machine gun pintle stand was farther back on the turret in a less usable position.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the First Division Museum.

A closer view of the cupola and gunner's periscope opening illustrates their wire-type brush guards, which can be contrasted with the solid guards found on later tanks.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The cupola door is open, allowing a view into the tank's interior. The commander's seat and shell case stop assembly are visible inside. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The tank's interior arrangement is shown in this sectionalized view. As shown here, some early-production tanks were fitted with a .50cal coaxial machine gun. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The drivers' positions and controls of an early-production tank are shown here. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The manual control lever (also called a "wobble stick") served to steer the tank as well as select transmission gear ranges. Four gear ranges (from front to rear: neutral, low, high, and reverse) were available, and shifting to low or high from high or low could be accomplished by simply selecting the desired gear range. Shifting into reverse from low or high required using the finger lift trigger or hand grip handle. When in reverse, the rear of the tank would swing to the right when the lever was pushed to the left, and vice-versa. Pressing the hand grip handle was necessary to shift to or from neutral. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The driver's instrument panel is shown here. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The gunner's control handles and their actions are shown here. Firing triggers can be seen on the font of the power traversing and elevating control handles, and facing upwards on the handgrip of the manual elevating control handle. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

A closer view of the gunner's controls are shown here. The elevation and traverse adjusting knobs were used to adjust the speed of elevation and traverse. The knob in the lower right of the picture is the elevation cylinder control valve, used to supercharge the elevation cylinder when shifting from power to manual turret operation. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

A later version of the gunner's controls is illustrated in this picture. The hand drive was the manual turret traverse. When the release lever on the manual traverse handle was squeezed, the dump valve was actuated to remove hydraulic power from the traversing mechanism and engage the manual drive gears. The no-back mechanism held the turret in position and prevented it from drifting if the tank was on a slope. (Picture from Manuscript of TM 9-718A C1.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The operation of the hydraulic control handles as well as the manual elevation handle is shown here. Traverse was accomplished by turning the right handle to the left or right, and elevation by pushing or pulling the top of the handle away from or towards the gunner. Maximum displacement of the handle in traverse would close a microswitch that removed the pulsing relay circuit and increased the traverse speed to its maximum slew speed of 4rpm from the maximum tracking speed of 1.7rpm. The left handle was a dummy handgrip, although both handles featured firing triggers on their front faces. (Picture from Manuscript of TM 9-718A C1.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

Even later in production, the gunner's controls were changed to those seen here. The right vertical handle was replaced by a round, enclosed handle design. To traverse the turret, the handle was rotated clockwise or counterclockwise. 1. Gunner's power control handle. 2. Turret power control box. 3. Hand grip (dummy). 4. Manual elevation control handle. 5. Manual traverse control handle. (Picture from FM 17-78 Tank, 90-mm Gun, M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The front wall of the turret is the subject of this image. This early tank was not fitted with the stereoscopic rangefinder, so the periscope T35 was substituted as the main gunnery sight. Many of these components were later standardized: the periscope T35 as M20; the elevation quadrant T21 as M13; the ballistic drive T23E1 as M3; the periscope mount T176 as M88; periscope mount T177 as M89. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The ballistic drive is shown here without the rangefinder installed. The commander's and gunner's periscopes were connected to the main gun so that their mirrors followed the gun when it was elevated or depressed. However, when the rangefinder was mounted it was connected to the ballistic drive instead of the gunner's periscope. The lever on the coupler allowed the periscope to be elevated up to 22° from zero elevation independently of the gun, which would increase the amount of terrain visible without elevating the gun. In addition, by rotating the range drum the ballistic drive introduced superelevation for range and ammunition type when the periscopes were used for laying the gun. (Picture from FM 17-78 Tank, 90-mm Gun, M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

This later-production vehicle does have the rangefinder installed, and the linkage connections can be contrasted with the early machine. (Picture from Manuscript of TM 9-718A C1.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The rangefinder M12 was the primary direct-fire sight when installed. The gunner operated the rangefinder and indexed the chosen ammunition type. The scales and reticle were in the left eyepiece, while the stereoscopic pattern was viewed through both eyepieces. The rangefinder was connected electrically to the superelevation transmitter M22, which was located on the powerpack. When turret power was on, the M22 automatically applied superelevation to the gun and kept the ranging pattern in contact with the target. (Picture from Manuscript of TM 9-718A C1.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

A schematic of the rangefinder is shown here. 1. End box. 2. Main bearing. 3. Spare lamp case. 4. Bellows. 5. Halving knob. 6. Internal correction system knob. 7. Ballistic correction knob. 8. Filter lever. 9. Diopter scale. `10. Binocular eyepiece. 11. Interpupillary knob. 12. Range knob. 13. Four-position light switch. 14. Rheostat. 15. Azimuth boresight knob. 16. Boresight knob locking levers. 17. Elevation boresight knob. 18. Ammunition knob. 19. Scales transfer lever (not visible). 20. Reticle lamp replacement knob. 21. Linkage to ballistic drive. 22. Linkage to gun. 23. Position of ammunition data chart. (Picture from FM 17-78 Tank, 90-mm Gun, M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

This sketch represents the rangefinder reticle. The range scale was graduated from 500 to 5,000 yards (460 to 4,600m), and the estimated range could be indexed on the range scale if the rangefinder was being used as a telescope instead of a rangefinder (e.g., due to damage). A ranging reticle was present in each eyepiece, and the halving knob was used to make these appear at the same elevation. This fused the reticle images into one, with the bottom mark appearing farthest away, the two center marks closer than the bottom, and the two top marks closest of all. The reticle would appear to move farther away as the range knob was used to increase the range on the range scale. When the lowest mark of the reticle appeared to be at the same range as the target, the range was then found. (Picture from FM 17-78 Tank, 90-mm Gun, M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the Patton Museum of Cavalry and Armor.

This picture is of the left-hand M12 rangefinder end box blister. The M12 was a stereoscopic rangefinder, and while having the potential of being more accurate than a coincidence rangefinder, the visualization process of aligning the lowest mark so that it appeared to be at a similar range as the target (a procedure tankers dubbed "flying the geese") is difficult for a percentage of the population, and this type of rangefinder was replaced on the M48A2C tank with a more user-friendly coincidence type.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The loader's position and eleven-round 90mm ammunition ready racks are visible here. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The ammunition stowage boxes in the hull floor have been opened in this image. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The commander was also provided with a power traversing and elevating control handle. The TC could override the gunner's inputs by squeezing the override lever against the control handle. Traverse was accomplished by turning the handle in the desired direction, and elevation was done by turning the top of the handle towards the front or rear of the turret. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The override lever can be seen here on the back of the control handle. (Picture from FM 17-78 Tank, 90-mm Gun, M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The hydraulic system for the turret was situated mainly under the gun breech at the front of the turret basket. The gunner's position is to the upper right of the image. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

A more detailed view is provided of a later-production tank. (Picture from FM 17-78 Tank, 90-mm Gun, M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The combination gun mount M78 is shown from the right. It included a concentric hydrospring recoil mechanism with normal and maximum recoil lengths of 12" (30cm) and 14" (36cm), respectively. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The coaxial machine gun cradle was on the left side of the combination gun mount. If a .50cal machine gun was mounted, the firing solenoid was installed on the machine gun as shown. If a .30cal machine gun was present, the firing solenoid was on the combination gun mount. The machine gun could be fired manually by pivoting the safety latch 90° forward and then pressing the firing trigger, which pushed the safety latch into the solenoid plunger. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

A .30cal coaxial machine gun can be contrasted with the .50cal. 1. Machinegun front locking pin. 2. Combination gun mount, M47 [sic]. 3. Coaxial machinegun. 4. Machinegun rear locking pin. 5. Elevating and traversing mechanism. (Picture from FM 17-78 Tank, 90-mm Gun, M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The underside of the machine gun mount can be seen here, with the elevating and traversing adjustments visible. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The bore evacuator and muzzle brake are shown disassembled. The complete gun weighed 2,650lb (1,200kg), while the tube weighed 1,750lb (794kg). (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 belonging to the US Army Armor and Cavalry Collection.

The cylindrical blast deflector is detailed here.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the American Armoured Foundation Tank Museum.

This is a late-production vehicle fitted with the T-shaped muzzle brake and solid periscope guards for the gunner and commander's cupola, which can be contrasted with the tanks above. The rangefinder blisters can be seen on the sides of the turret near the top.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

This is a right front view of the Continental AV-1790-5B engine. Each of the two cylinder banks was provided with its own carburetor. Bore and stroke for each of the 12 cylinders was 5.75", yielding a displacement of 1791.75in³ (29,361.4cm³). Maximum governed speed with full load was 2800 rpm, and the dry weight with flywheel and transmission adapter was 2505lbs (1136kg). (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The cross-drive transmission is shown here installed in the hull. This single unit took care of power transmission, steering, and braking. It weighed 2,946lb (1,336kg) dry; was 30" (76cm) long, 40.375" (102.55cm) tall, and approximately 40" (100cm) wide over the drive flanges. A. Transmission oil cooler lines. B. Steering control rod. C. Speedometer sending unit. D. Spark plug access opening cover. E. Steering control lever. F. Transmission valve body. G. Shifting control lever. H. Shifting control rod. J. High-oil-temperature-warning-signal-light switch. K. Low-oil-pressure-warning-signal-light switch. L. Transmission oil cooler fan controller. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

An auxiliary engine and generator were mounted behind the right main engine fuel tank. The auxiliary engine could accept fuel from either main engine fuel tank, and was a Wisconsin TFT 13.6hp, air-cooled, two-cylinder, constant speed (2,800rpm), 4 cycle gasoline engine. Its bore and stroke were both 3.25" (8.26cm). It could be started electrically via the tank's electrical system, or via a pull-type manual starting handle. The generator was an Eclipse-Pioneer EC-30E00-3-A 150-ampere, 24-volt, 4-pole, 4-brush, field-regulated unit using interpole and compensated windings, the type also used by the main engine. A. Generator ground cable. B. Choke control cable. C. Air cleaner. D. Drain valve handle. E. Fire extinguisher nozzle. F. Drain valve dial. G. Air intake screen. H. Fuel shut-off valve. J. Fuel line, shut-off valve to pump. K. Drain valve. L. Drain outlet pipe. M. Mounting plate attaching screw. N. Engine mounting plate. P. Fuel line from tank. Q. Generator. R. Generator terminal block. S. Equalizer circuit cables (61) and (478). T. Generator positive cable. U. Heat deflector. V. Fire extinguisher line connector. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

Nomenclature of the suspension components is given in this image. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47.

The adjusting idler and front road wheels have been removed, revealing the connection between them. As the front road wheel encountered ground undulations or obstacles, the adjusting idler wheel was moved in response to the deflection imparted to the front road wheel. Track tension could be adjusted via the idler wheel adjuster. (Picture from TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47.)

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the First Division Museum.

The final drives on the M47 were at a similar angle to those found on the M46.

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90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 47 at the Patton Museum of Cavalry and Armor.

This detail shows the auxiliary track tensioning idler behind the number 6 road wheel. The addition of this wheel helped keep the track from becoming excessively slack and thereby helped prevent thrown tracks.

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Last updated 16 Oct 2021.
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© Copyright 2001-21 Chris Conners