The turret and armament on this vehicle appears similar to that of the M48A5 tank, but the hull is noticeably different. The front hull is wedge-shaped and straight as opposed to M48's rounded bow, and the exhaust pipe for the personnel heater can be seen exiting to the hull's right side, in front of the fender stowage box. The lens for the rangefinder can be seen in the armored blister on the turret side, and the gunner's telescope was provided with a cover in the canvas dust shield. Although obscured from view, this early-production machine has one lifting eye forward on the turret roof and two to the rear. Later turrets had this arrangement reversed.
This tank is such early production that it was one of the fifteen afflicted by insufficient hull armor, and was consigned to training.
The road wheels on the M60 are forged aluminum, and there are reinforcing struts running around the circumference of each wheel. This vehicle has also been fitted with friction snubbers on the first and last road wheels stations. Both the commander's and loader's hatches are open on this vehicle. On this later-production turret, there are two lifting eyes forward and a single one to the rear.
The stowage mount for the xenon searchlight can be seen on the left rear corner of the turret roof; the supports are attached around the turret ventilator blower cover. Side-loading air cleaner boxes are visible on the tank's fender just ahead of the rear stowage box.
The turret ventilator and searchlight stowage mount are shown here from above. An antenna mount is in front of the ventilator.
This tank features top-loading air cleaners, as opposed to the machine above.
A top-down view of the top-loading air cleaner is provided here.
M60 retained the idea of a very large cupola from the M48, and like in the older tank, the .50cal machine gun could be aimed, fired, and reloaded from under armor. Folded forward beside the gunner's periscope is an interruptor bar to prevent the TC from machine gunning the searchlight
A closer shot of the M19 cupola shows the contour of the machine gun mount without its canvas dust cover. The gunner's flat-topped periscope housing is in front of the cupola, and mounting posts for the interruptor bar are welded to the roof beside the periscope housing. The power receptacle for the searchlight can be seen in the middle of the turret roof.
The commander was provided with a door behind his periscope housing. The pad welded to the side of the cupola was a leftover from early production when mounts for the M2HB machine gun were attached to the cupola while the M85 was experiencing production issues.
The loader had a D-shaped hatch to the left of the M19 cupola, and another interruptor bar protected the searchlight when it was stowed on the left rear of the turret.
A stowage socket for the .50cal M2HB machine gun was welded to the turret rear. Another antenna mount is visible on the turret roof to the right of the lifting eye.
A shallower view of the turret shows the contour of the side casting as it meets the cupola. The rangefinder blisters and gunner's telescope on this tank have been covered over.
Details of the xenon searchlight mount and power cable can be seen in this image. The visible opening in the canvas dust cover was for the coaxial machine gun.
The searchlight receptacle is uncapped on this tank, and the interruptor bar is erected.
Another example of the plugged-in searchlight is provided here. The forward turret lifting eye can be seen behind the searchlight.
The driver's hatch was surrounded by a semicircle of three M27 periscopes, and an M24 infrared periscope could be fitted in his hatch door.
The driver also had an escape hatch in the hull floor.
The dual volute spring bump stop for the front road wheel station is highlighted in this image.
The rear road wheel, its bump stop, and the attachment of the rear shock absorber can be seen here.
This tank wears the later T142 track with replaceable rubber pads, and some of the pads are missing, allowing a view into their cups. The headlights are also gone on this machine, as is one of the external handles for fire extinguisher activation, located under the guard behind the lifting eye. Details of the fender and mud guard attachment can also be gleaned.
This image shows one difference between the aluminum road wheels (left) and the steel road wheels (right). The track center guides would wear the aluminum wheels at a much faster rate, and these therefore sported a steel ring to be affixed to their inner faces.
The left side of the gun mount M116 is illustrated here. (Picture from TM 9-1000-213-35.)
Ammunition stowage in early M60s is drawn here. In later tanks with a smaller AN/VRC series radio in place of the earlier AN/GRC series, eight rounds were stowed in the turret bustle. (Picture from Tank Data, vol. 3.)
Ammunition stowage in late M60A1s is drawn here. Earlier tanks had a three-round stowage tray instead of the three-round tubular stowage rack. (Picture from Tank Data, vol. 3.)
The shape of the elongated turret on this M60A1 is very different from the rounded turret on the tank above. The 105mm gun has been moved forward, and the armor protection and ballistic shape was substantially improved from the old turret. This vehicle is also fitted with the aluminum wheels, but note the horizontal hull tiedown eyes compared with vertical hull tiedown eyes the above vehicle. M60 and M60A1 hulls up to serial number 5025 had three vertical tiedown eyes rated at 20,000lb (9000kg) each. M60A1s from serial number 5026 and 152mm gun-launcher tanks M60A2 from serial number 4426 had four horizontal tiedown eyes rated at 490,000lb (220,000kg) side load and 413,000lb (187,000kg) oblique load. Late-production hulls were fitted with only two horizontal lifting eyes, as the middle two were deleted. This tank is equipped with the 1kw AN/VSS-3A xenon infrared searchlight, which is plugged into the receptacle on the turret roof. The light had a peak candlepower output of 50 million, and could operate with a compact beam of 1° minimum or a spread beam of from 1° to 7°. In front of this on the gun tube is a pyrotechnic device to simulate the firing of the main gun. The right-hand blister for the coincidence rangefinder is visible near the top of the turret just below the commander's cupola. Armored top-loading air cleaners are also visible on the rear fenders between the stowage boxes. This tank belonged to the 24th Infantry Division, and was taking part in Exercise GALLANT EAGLE '79 at Eglin Air Force Base. (Picture taken 25 Oct 1978 by SSGT Dwight A. Jackson; available from the Defense Visual Information Center.)
The loader's hatch and commander's cupola are open on this machine, allowing a glance at the roof armor thickness. The empty mount for the AN/VSS-3A searchlight is present above the gun tube. An armored top-loading air cleaner can be seen on the fender. The tanks belonged to A Troop, 3d Squadron, 4th Cavalry, 25th Infantry Division. (Picture taken 10 Sep 1983 by Al Chang; available from the National Archives.)
This Marine tank is fitted with explosive reactive armor (ERA). These tiles are composed of explosive sandwiched between two steel plates. When struck by a high-explosive antitank (HEAT) shell or missile, the HEAT penetrator detonates the explosive, sending the plates in opposite directions. This action destabilizes the HEAT penetrator, making it less effective at penetrating the tank's armor. This tank was participating in the US/Thai exercise THALAY THAI '89. (Picture taken 1 Sep 1989; available from the Defense Visual Information Center.)
A view of the turret front without the canvas dust cover is provided here. The aperture in the gun shield for the gunner's telescope M105C has been blanked off. The three attachment points for the searchlight can be seen above the gun tube, and its capped power receptacle on the turret roof is visible. The small pipe to the driver's right on the hull roof is the bilge pump outlet.
The gun shield is shown in profile in this image. The coaxial machine gun aperture is on this side of the vehicle.
This early-production M60A2 retains the bore evacuator on the 152mm gun-launcher. Details of the suspension, such as the aluminum road wheels and friction snubbers on the first two and last road wheels, are also visible. A 23" (58cm) 2.2kw 100 million candlepower xenon searchlight is mounted on the turret's left side, in front of the loader's hatch. An infrared filter could be used as well, black on the AN/VSS-1 searchlight and pink on the AN/VSS-2. The light could be used in overdrive mode for 15-20 seconds once every five minutes, which increased its output to 150 million candlepower. The beam width for both the AN/VSS-1 and -2 was either 0.5-0.75° in narrow mode or 7° in wide mode. The beam was 1.2° high in each mode. With white light, the lamp had a planning range of 1500m; with the pink filter the AN/VSS-2 had an infrared planning range of 1000m.
The narrow cross-section of the turret can be glimpsed here. The upper part of the turret was not much wider than the gun mount, and the turret widens near the base for the gunner's and loader's stations. The service headlights and infrared headlights are obvious; above these in both headlight groups is a blackout driving light, and below them is a blackout marker light. The mounting locations for the driver's three M27 periscopes are visible in the upper hull, and the exhaust for the personnel heater can be seen running from the right side of the hull roof to the tank's right fender. This vehicle is running on the T142 track with replaceable rubber pads.
The barrel of the gun-launcher on this tank lacks the bore evacuator seen on the previous vehicles. It is equipped with the closed-breech scavenging system, which rendered the bore evacuators redundant. The introduction of this system came about due to issues with burning fragments of the combustible ammunition cases remaining in the gun breech after the round had been fired. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)
This rear view shows the bulge under the rear louvres cause by the addition of the CBSS. The system was comprised of two 3100psi (220kg/cm²) air bottles, two gear-driven compressors, and other associated equipment, and it would deliver three 1000psi (70kg/cm²) shots of air after each main gun round was fired. The system was triggered by the recoil of the gun-launcher. Across the back of the turret, from left to right, is a stowage basket, turret ventilator blower, and the stowage point for the searchlight. The large size of the commander's cupola can also be ascertained. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)
A closer look at the characteristic bulge under the exhaust grilles present on CBSS-equipped tanks is provided here. There is a pronounced lip along the bottom of the grilles that overlaps this bulge. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)
The Cross-Drive transmission has been removed in this image, and the CBSS installation including the air compressors can be seen at the bottom rear of the assembly. (Photo by Mark Halpin.)
M60A2 possessed a new commander's cupola, which is illustrated here. His M51 periscope is mounted at the top of the cupola, and the circular mount for the .50cal machine gun is offset to the right. Both cupola and turret were stabilized in azimuth and elevation. The gunner's M50 periscope is visible on top of his hatch on the turret's low right side. A tow cable is stowed on the side of the turret, and a stowage basket rings the turret rear.
The loader had a hatch on the left side of the turret, and an M37 periscope was installed in it. Ammunition was uploaded through the loader's hatch. A tow cable is again present, and details of the xenon searchlight mount and wiring can be seen here.
The loader's hatch is open here, and the thickness of the armor surrounding the hatch can be gleaned.
The bore evacuator on the 152mm gun-launcher is apparent, positioned about halfway down the short gun tube. The housing above the gun was for the Shillelagh missile's infrared transmitter. The gunner's M126 telescope is visible, and under the padlocked cover above the telescope is the aperture for the tank's laser rangefinder. The telescope was the sight used for the missile, and the primary sight for canister and coaxial machine gun engagements. It was the secondary for HEAT-MP shells after the gunner's M50 periscope. The external triggers for the tank's fire extinguishers are visible under the guard on the hull front slope.
The components of the laser rangefinder system are shown here installed in the turret. (Picture from FM 17-12-4 Tank Gunnery for M60A2 Tanks.)
The components of the missile guidance system are shown here. (Picture from FM 17-12-4 Tank Gunnery for M60A2 Tanks.)
The M60A2 gunner's controls are shown here. His handles are obvious in the middle of the image, and to the left is his panel and computer control unit. The M126 telescope is above the gunner's panel, and his periscope M50 is to the right of his handles. The ammunition box in the center of the turret floor was used to stow eight conventional rounds.
This view is up into the commander's cupola. The microphone and intercom control box are visible on the turret wall, and the cupola traverse mechanism is behind the TC's left shoulder.
This is the gunner's laser ranging control unit, which allowed him to select which laser return the computer used as the basis for a target's range. It is located just to the right of his periscope.
This view is looking across the turret to the loader's position. Stowage for the firing circuit tester, gunner's quadrant, and spare lamp are labeled, and the loader's panel is mounted on the left turret wall. The breech of the 152mm gun-launcher is on the right of the picture.
This view highlights the commander's panel on the left side of his cupola. The knobs and toggle switches on the panel perform functions related to target designation and gun stabilization. His handles are visible in the bottom of the image, and the browpad for his M51 periscope is above the handles.
The right side of the commander's cupola is shown here. The M19 ballistic computer control unit is in the center of the image, and this allowed the TC to adjust for crosswind speed, cant, parallax, ammunition type, gun jump, and drift. Some of the eleven vision blocks ringing the base of the cupola are visible, and the M51 periscope is on the left of the image.
This tank is externally similar to the M60A1 above. Friction snubbers on the first two and last road wheels are obvious. The front road wheel arm was equipped with double bump stops, compared to single bump stops on the other wheels. The single bump stops can be seen behind the road wheels. The exhaust pipe for the personnel heater can be seen in front of the forward fender stowage box, and a triangular mount for a smoke grenade launcher assembly is visible on the forward turret below the grab handle.
Details of the top of the tank can be seen in this image. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 Organizational Maintenance Manual--Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-mm Gun, M60A3 (2350-00-148-6548) and (2350-01-061-2306) TTS Turret.)
The forged aluminum wheel on the right is easily contrasted with the steel wheel on the left; reinforcing ribs easily differentiate the aluminum wheels. The mounting for the road wheel swing arms are obvious, as are the bump stops behind each road wheel.
The linkage for the adjustable compensating idler wheel is shown here. The rubber pads on the T142 track are secured by a bolt that goes through the track block.
This view of the driver's hatch shows the mounts for the periscopes around his position, as well as for the night vision device in the hatch door itself. This hatch had originally been designed for the infrared periscope M24, but was then modified to accept the AN/VVS-2 passive viewer.
The interior of the driver's position is shown here. The steering T-bar is pivoted to the right. In this position, the tank would turn to the left while moving forward, and to the right while in reverse. The large perforated pedal is the accelerator, while the brake is to the left and the headlight dimmer switch is below and to the left of the brake pedal. The gauge between his left and center periscopes is the tachometer, with the speedometer in the opposite space. The red warning light above and to the right of the speedometer alerted the driver to high engine or transmission oil temperature, or low transmission oil pressure. The small gauge above the steering linkage and below the tachometer measured brake pressure. The white transmission shift lever is convenient to his right hand, and the gauge panel can be seen to the lower right of the image. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)
The right side of the turret was home to the commander's cupola and the gunner's periscope sight. The round aperture for the commander's M85 machine gun is visible in the cupola's front, and a periscope guard is present on top of the cupola. From the turret mounting surface, the cupola is 21.56" (54.76cm) tall to the periscope guard and 16.57" (42.09cm) without the periscope guard. Its inner diameter was 34" (86cm) and its total diameter was 52.25" (132.7cm). With the M85 machine gun and 180 rounds of ammunition, the cupola weighed 2439lb (1106kg). Mounted just beside the gunner's periscope is an interruptor bar that, when swung to the vertical position, was meant to prevent the commander's machine gun from firing down onto the gun shield-mounted searchlight. The rounded top to the gunner's periscope guard indicates that this tank is equipped with the AN/VSG-2 tank thermal sight. Non-TTS tanks (like the M60 above) had a flat-topped periscope guard.
The right side of the turret is detailed in this picture. The commander's seat is elevated to the right, and the gunner's position is directly to the front and below. The commander's black control handle sits atop the turret traverse gearbox assembly; the commander's control handle was connected to the gunner's control assembly by the two rods: the upper elevation rod and lower traverse rod. The unmarked white box directly behind the gearbox assembly on the turret wall is the electronics controller unit. Directly behind his control handle on the turret wall with is his ammunition select box. The black box on the turret wall above and to the right of the ammunition select box is the commander's communication control box, and the networks box for the cupola power switch and circuit breakers for the stabilization electronics and power pack blower motor is to the right of this. The laser rangefinder can be seen near the top of the image; the upper black knob was for adjusting deflection while the lower knob was for adjusting elevation. In front of the turret traverse gearbox is the gunner's azimuth indicator, with his large control unit and smaller stabilization control box and gun control boxes going forward along the turret wall. Above the stabilization control box is the turret hand traverse drive; the shaft from this handle connects to the turret gearbox assembly via the no-bak assembly, which prevents the rotation of the hand traversing drive handle when the turret is using hydraulic power, or when the turret rotates due to being on a slope or when the gun tube strikes an obstacle. The gunner's control handles can be seen on the lower left. The tank thermal sight is not mounted, but the commander's extension would snake along the turret wall above where the rods exiting the front of his override handle have been bent downward. The gunner's telescope remains, however. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)
The shape and thickness of the commander's cupola door can be seen in this image. This tank from the 1ST Battalion, 108th Armor, 48th Brigade, Georgia National Guard was taking part in an annual training exercise, hence the MILES sensors on the turret and pyrotechnics mounted on the main gun's bore evacuator. (Picture taken 15 Jul 1983 by Long; available from the National Archives.)
The loader had his own hatch in the left side of the turret roof, and an M37 periscope was provided in his hatch door. The flexible base of the crosswind sensor is visible on the rear of the turret, and hidden from view behind the commander's cupola is a turret ventilator. The left-side rangefinder blister is empty since the laser rangefinder only occupied the opposite blister. Note that the xenon searchlight receptacle has been capped on this tank, since it was no longer necessary.
The 105mm ammunition stowage in the turret bustle is shown here. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)
The mounting of the crosswind sensor is detailed here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 Organizational Maintenance Manual--Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-mm Gun, M60A3 (2350-00-148-6548) and (2350-01-061-2306) TTS Turret.)
The protective flap on this blister would open when the laser rangefinder was in use. The rangefinder could detect targets from 200m to 4700m and had a maximum lasing rate of 3 per minute, or 6 per minute for 2 minutes followed by a 3-minute cooling period. An armored fender-mounted air cleaner is visible behind the rangefinder blister between the fender stowage boxes.
The internal components of the laser rangefinder are shown here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 Organizational Maintenance Manual--Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-mm Gun, M60A3 (2350-00-148-6548) and (2350-01-061-2306) TTS Turret.)
The mount for the left-side smoke grenade launcher is shown here, absent the launcher itself. The power receptacle cap is unscrewed.
The travel lock for the tank's 105mm gun was placed on the covering for the insulated exhaust tunnel. The tunnel was lined on both sides by air intake louvres for the engine. A wire stowage basket is present on the rear of the turret.
The exhaust grille doors are highlighted here, and the shape of the armor below these can be contrasted with the M60A2 with the CBSS. The square in the right-side door is for mounting a deep-water fording exhaust stack, and the two square panels under the grille doors were for access to the tank's transmission.
The positioning of some turret components are sketched for us here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 Organizational Maintenance Manual--Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-mm Gun, M60A3 (2350-00-148-6548) and (2350-01-061-2306) TTS Turret.)
The key for the above diagram is: 1. M85 machine gun in commander's cupola. 2. M240 machine gun. 3. Radios in turret bustle. 4. Brass receptacle container on co-axial machine gun mount. 5. Interphone and control boxes. 6. Antennas and wind sensor mast. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 Organizational Maintenance Manual--Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-mm Gun, M60A3 (2350-00-148-6548) and (2350-01-061-2306) TTS Turret.)
The various components of the turret and gun control system are diagrammed here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 Organizational Maintenance Manual--Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-mm Gun, M60A3 (2350-00-148-6548) and (2350-01-061-2306) TTS Turret.)
Details of the tank's ballistics drive are drawn in this picture. This assembly mechanically connects the gunner's periscopes and laser rangefinder to the gun mount in order to keep them synchronized. The ballistics drive also added superelevation from the computer output unit and changed the line-of-sight of the gunner's periscopes and rangefinder according to this superelevation. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 Organizational Maintenance Manual--Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-mm Gun, M60A3 (2350-00-148-6548) and (2350-01-061-2306) TTS Turret.)